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Iqbal Nafees Khan
Special Secretary (Archives), Sindh Archives

The progress of civilization is primarily based on the acquisition of knowledge. Manuscripts are the result of human endeavors which they have been made in order to transfer knowledge to other human beings and to express themselves. These master pieces are the most important expression of intellectual development of mankind. Manuscripts depict and delineate the experiences of human beings for recapitulating the events of the past. Many vistas of history are unfolded by reading and examining manuscripts. Because of their importance these items are collected and preserved by persons/ institutions of civilized world. Modern reprography techniques have made it possible to make countless copies of manuscripts but romanticism and aesthetics attached with the original one cannot be copied. Therefore we can see through the annals of history that original manuscripts are being preserved carefully.

Islamic civilization has had a glorious history of acquisition and dissemination of knowledge. Numerous scientists and men of letters belonging to Muslim society have developed incomparable manuscripts of knowledge and art. These are available in various museums, archives and libraries to guide future generations by recourse to past experiences. A number of important manuscripts have been misappropriated or vandalized by invaders. Human race has been bitterly lamenting over this loss.


The territory of Pakistan has been a cradle of ancient civilizations. We can find here century old manuscripts which are landmarks of the Indus valley civilization and Gandhara civilization. A major achievement of the Indus civilization was the invention of writing, which is one of its hallmarks from the beginning, 2500 BC, and which disappeared along with it, shortly after 2000 BC. It is one of the world’s four earliest scripts and so far it is not deciphered. After reading it we may be able to have further knowledge of that period. Inscriptions on stones have also been collected from Taxila and Mansehra district of Pakistan, which belong to the ancient civilization of Asoka’s period. During 399 AD the Chinese traveler Fahien visited India. He described that writing was then prevalent in India .Thereafter other Chinese traveler Heun Tse Sang visited India during 629-643 AD. He reported that Sanskrit was being used for writing. On his return he took away a good number of manuscripts of that time with him. The territory of Pakistan has been a cradle of ancient civilizations. We can find here century old manuscripts which are landmarks of the Indus valley civilization and Gandhara civilization. A major achievement of the Indus civilization was the invention of writing, which is one of its hallmarks from the beginning, 2500 BC, and which disappeared along with it, shortly after 2000 BC. It is one of the world’s four earliest scripts and so far it is not deciphered. After reading it we may be able to have further knowledge of that period. Inscriptions on stones have also been collected from Taxila and Mansehra district of Pakistan, which belong to the ancient civilization of Asoka’s period. During 399 AD the Chinese traveler Fahien visited India. He described that writing was then prevalent in India .Thereafter other Chinese traveler Heun Tse Sang visited India during 629-643 AD. He reported that Sanskrit was being used for writing. On his return he took away a good number of manuscripts of that time with him.

The oldest manuscripts were generally inscribed on stones etc. Thereafter palm leaves, parchment and handmade paper were used for manuscripts. Such manuscripts are in Sanskrit, Pali and Bengali languages which are rarely available in Pakistan. Paper making was started in Muslim world in 8th century. Paper manufacturing plants were established in Samarqand and Baghdad in 794 A.C. Thereafter it spread all over the Islamic world. In sub continent paper making locality was known as ‘Kaghzipura’. After invention of paper, manuscripts are being prepared on it.

The new era of development and dissemination of religious and other literature was started after advent of Islam in the subcontinent. As the press was not started till the 17th century therefore copies of manuscripts were prepared by hand. Due to the patronage of rulers and notables of society calligraphy became an art which scaled great heights during Muslim rule in India. Calligraphers were known as Khushnawees. It was a prestigious work to a point that several rulers did it themselves. These traditions resulted in the development of exquisitely prepared manuscripts which are written mostly in Persian and Arabic languages.


The advent of Islam in the northwest of the South Asian Sub continent, which now constitutes Pakistan, during the 8th century, inaugurated a new socio-cultural and religio- political order. It was started in 711-712 with the conquest of Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim and annexation of this territory to the Umayyad Caliphate. Arabs established their own independent States in Sindh and Punjab.

2.1 Establishment of Arab Emirates and spread of Arabic

Arabs consolidated their possessions and established their states known as Emirates of Banu Habar in Sindh and the Emirates of Banu Samah in Punjab. Al-Mansurah was the Capital of Habbaris who ruled for some 170 years (861-1025 A.D.) while Banu Samah ruled for about 100 years before they were overthrown by Ismailis. Arab Culture dominated the land and Arabic became the lingua franca of the area while Sindhi and Saraiki were also spoken.

2.2 Afghan rule and Spread of Persian

During later decades of the 10th century AD Mahmud of Ghazna initiated a military campaign against the Hindu Shahi ruler to consolidate his possessions. Sultan Mahmud retained the possession of northern India especially Punjab which was annexed to the Ghaznavid Sultanate. His successor shifted himself to the Punjab and made Lahore his Capital. Henceforth Lahore became as Important Centre of Islamic Culture and Civilization. Many Muslim saints and scholars came and settled themselves in Lahore to preach Islam among the local people.

The Ghaznavid Sultanate spread Islamic Art and Culture in the sub continent and introduced Persian here. Numerous scholars and poets flocked to the court and created their master pieces here. Ali Hajveri wrote his famous Kashf-ul-Mahjub during this period.

2.3 The Turkish Sultanate and birth of Urdu

In 1186 AD Shahabuddin Ghori vanquished the last successor of Mahmud Ghaznavi. Ghori’s slave and general Qutub ud din Aibak established the Turkish Sultanate with its Capital at Delhi. During his rule Delhi, Lahore, Multan, Uch, became the main centers of religio-political activity. Here lived eminent scholars, saints, poet and historians like Sheikh Abdul Aziz Makki (1216 AD) Syed Ahmed Tokhta Tirmizi and Sheikh Yaqoob Zinjani (1204 AD).

Persian was the main language but Sanskrit and other languages also flourished. A number of manuscripts in Sanskrit written around this period are available at Punjab University Library, Lahore. Muslim scholars took interest in Sanskrit. Al Beruni translated many works of Sanskrit into Persian and Arabic. About this time a new lingua franca viz Urdu came to be developed. It is an amalgam of foreign and local Languages and dialects. The Delhi Sultans are well known for patronizing learning and art. They gathered numerous eminent scholars, historians and calligraphers from far off lands who developed the Indo-Islamic culture. Their history and intellectual activities were well recognized. A number of manuscripts were brought from other countries to India. The Sultanate established KitabKhana (Libraries) at the capital and other important places which contained classical manuscripts in Arabic and Persian. Such a library was established by the Lodhis of Lahore which was disturbed at the time of Babur’s invasion in 1526.

2.4 Developments during Mughal Empire

This well established and favorite tradition of sultanate were perpetuated and enlarged by the founder of the Mughal Empire, Zahiruddin Babar .He brought several manuscripts which he had acquired in Herat and Samarqand from the Taimurid collection. One of them was Shahnama prepared and illustrated for prince Juki, a grandson of Taimur in 1440. This was a fabulous acquisition destined to remain a prized possession of the imperial Library of the Mughals having pursued by almost all emperors. Just after his victory, Babur visited Library at Lahore for distributing some books among his sons.

All the Mughal Emperors maintained master binder. Eminent Calligraphers known as Khushnavees were hired who were regarded as heaven-sent genius. All Important work used to be transcribed by illuminations by eminent Calligraphers and Sahhaf (master binders) to make deluxe editions for kitabkhanas. These deluxe manuscripts were pursued by the reigning Emperor ceremoniously on the first day of their coronation.

Not much about administration and management of this imperial kitabkhana is known. A number of fabulous manuscripts of this period are available at different museums and Libraries. With the decline and fall of Mughal empire kitabkhana and production of manuscripts suffered irreparable loss. The rulers and elites could not maintain previous standard. A huge number of manuscripts and albums (muraqqas) got dispersed and destroyed some finding their way to museums of USA and Europe. The paintings contained in these Manuscripts and albums were exhaustively studied there while Manuscripts themselves received half hearted treatment.

2.5 British Period

After fall of the Mughal Empire and the beginning of the colonial period the Manuscripts could not be so patronized. The notables among the Muslim community were the main targets of colonial rulers. During this period some Nawabs and Private collectors enthusiastically collected and preserved old and new Manuscripts. Moulvi Khuda Bux of Patna, Nawab of Rampur and Nizam of Hyderabad have jealously collected manuscripts which are preserved in Khuda Bux Library, Raza Library and Asfia Library of India. Hafiz Ghulam Jilani has collected good number of manuscripts which he has donated to the library of Islamia College, Peshawar.

Most of these treasures of knowledge are now located in India and Pakistan could not inherit them after partition. With partition of land the heritage and history cannot be divided. These collections are common heritage of all people especially Muslims of the sub continent as they were created and preserved by Muslims and mostly their subject matter is related to Islamic ideology and Culture.


Pakistan was established in 1947 on the basis of two nation theory. Unfortunately Pakistan did not inherit any important repository of manuscript collection of sub continent. Two record rooms of Lahore and Karachi, which were established in the 19th Century holds rich collection of Government records. About 50% of them are handwritten.

After the creation of Pakistan several new institutions have been developed which acquired considerable number of manuscripts. Apart from them there are several personal collections which contain valuable manuscripts. A number of them are still undocumented. Approximately there are about 2.0 Million manuscripts in Pakistan. These manuscripts cover a variety of subjects, themes, languages and aesthetics. A list of Libraries and Archives containing a considerable number of manuscripts is attached as Annexure ‘A’.

Brief description of important manuscript collections in Pakistan is as under:

3.1 National Museum of Pakistan

The National Museum of Pakistan contains an important collection of items relating to Pakistan’s cultural heritage. Its galleries display Indus Civilization artifacts, Gandhara Civilization, Sculptures, Islamic Art, Miniature Paintings, ancient coins and Manuscripts documenting Pakistan's cultural and Political history and its civilizational heritage. There are two branches of National Museum one at Karachi and other at Lahore.

3.2 National Museum, Karachi

National Museum, Karachi contains 10,000 manuscripts written in Persian, Arabic, Bengali and other languages. A manuscript of Shahnama e Firdausi belonging to 6th century AD is available there. Some manuscripts written on palm leaves in Bengali language have also been preserved.

National Museum has acquired more than 275 manuscripts of the Holy Quran. A Quran Gallery has been established at the National Museum Karachi. Fifty two rare and marvelous manuscripts of Holy Quran are on display in this gallery. These manuscripts have been written in Kufic, Naskh, Nastaliq, Thulth, Riqa and Rehan scripts. The largest collection is in Naskh and Bahar scripts. They are in different sizes and some of them bear signatures, seals and thumb impressions. Most outstanding of them are as follows:

  • Some Kufic fragments of 4th and 5th century A.H.
  • A beautiful copy prepared by Yaqut Mustasimi, third court calligrapher of Abbasid Caliph Mustasim Billah.
  • A copy calligraphed by Ahmed ibn al-Suharwardy in 689 A.H
  • A rare copy in Rehan script calligraphed in 7th century A.H.
  • A copy in Iranian Naskh calligraphed 1218 A.H.
  • Beautiful copies in Kashmir style calligraphed in 13th cent. A.H.
  • Few copies in scroll form written in Ghubar script.

This gallery will be inaugurated shortly. Apart from manuscripts of Holy Quran exquisite specimens of calligraphy and manuscripts on other subjects are also preserved there. Some of them are as follows:

  • Tahqeeq Muneef ul Martab – by Sheikh Salahuddin Alai ( 753 AH)
  • Jamia al Usool Ibn ul Aseer (769 AH)
  • Ghunia tul Talebeen (summary of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani by Dara Shikoh)
  • Al Kafi by Imam Hakim Shaheed bearing seal of Makhdoom Hashim Thattvi.
3.3 National Museum Lahore

National museum Lahore contains a large collection of paintings dating back to the Mughal, Sikh and British eras. Some 1423 manuscripts mostly in Persian language have been collected there. About 40-50 Quran manuscripts are included in this collection. Some of them belong to the Abbasid period.

3.4 National Library of Pakistan, Islamabad

It has been established in 1993. About 600 manuscripts are included in the collection of this library. It includes manuscripts in Persian language relating to the history of Kashmir and first copy of Kulyat e Meer published in 1811 A.D.

3.5 Punjab University Library, Lahore

The manuscript section of this library contains about 2,4000 titles written in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Sanskrit and Punjabi languages. Out of them 1200 manuscripts are in Arabic and 9075 are written in Sanskrit. Important manuscripts are as under:

  • Holy Quran written in Kufi, Bahar and Naskh scripts.
  • Kifayat ul Qari fi Sharahi Sahi Bukhari by Ibrahim bin Umar (885 A.H)
  • Sharahul-Arbai by Muslih ud din Al-lari (979 A.H.)
  • Bayab ul asrar by Abul Farah Muhammad (1151 A.H.)
  • Sharah ul Masaili Hunain by Abul Qasim Abdul Rehman b. Ali (470 A.H.)
  • Waqiat e Baburi – translated in Persian by Abdul Rahim Khan e Khanan (998 A.H.).
  • Tohfatul Ahrar by Abdul Rehman Jami – Contemporary copy.
3.6 Punjab Public Library, Lahore

This library contains 1100 manuscripts written mainly in Arabic and Persian languages. A manuscript of Persian translation by Mulla Abdul Qadir Bdayuni and five manuscripts of Persian translation of Mahabharata are included in this collection.

3.7 Dayal Singh Library, Lahore

About 2000 manuscripts are included in the collection of this library. Some of important manuscripts are as under:

  • Al Fawaid all Ziaiah by Mulla Haji (877 A.H.)
  • Tafseer e Hussaini by Waiz Kashfi (993 A.H.)
  • Tazkarah Sheikh Adam Binnori.
3.8 Masood Jhander Library, Mailsi

It was established in 1890 at district Mailsi Punjab. About 3000 manuscripts are preserved here which are mostly written in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, Saraiki and Punjabi languages. Some of them are as under:

  • Holy Quran weighing 100 Kg.
  • Holy Quran, size 315 X 6 Cm.
  • Heptagonal manuscript of Holy Quran.
  • Aqleedas by Allama Nasiruddin Tusi
3.9 Sindh Archives, Karachi

It was established in 1853 as a record room. Government records mainly from 1820 to 1936 have been preserved here. About 50% of them are handwritten which contains letters of important persons, Farmans, Pedigrees etc. About 1000 oriental manuscripts have been acquired at this repository which is written in Arabic, Persian, Sindhi and Urdu languages. About 80% manuscripts preserved at Sindh archives have been acquired from veteran scholor of Sindh Dr N A Baloch which comprise NA Baloch collection. Some unique manuscripts are as under:

  • Diwan e Walid bin Yazid bin Abdul Malik bin Marwan written during 2nd cent. A.H and calligraphed in 6th century A.H. (Rare).
  • Daqaiq ul Haqaiq by Ahmed Rumi. (Rare).
  • Risala e Sulook by Zain uddin Khwwafi (821 A.H.)
  • Insha e Atarad by Shoqiram calliphed by his daughter.
  • Muntahi al Ghaayat by Allama Bahishti (988 A.H.)
  • Articles and poetry in Urdu language in handwriting of writers and poets like Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Ibn e Insha etc.
3.10 Bait ul Hikmat, Karachi

It is well renowned institution at Hamdard University, Karachi. A total of 1738 manuscripts are available here which are mostly related to medicine. Some important manuscripts are as follows:

  • Alhawi fit Tadawi by Mahmood Shirazi (939 A.H.)
  • Tazkerah Al Kahaleen by Essa bin Ali Kahal.
  • Fatawa e Qazi Khan (1187 A.H.)
3.11 Institute of Sindhiology, Jamshoro

This institute is located in Sindh University Jamshoro. A good collection of manuscripts is available there. These manuscripts are written in Persian, Arabic and Sindhi languages.

3.12 Sindh Museum, Hyderabad

This museum contains 424 rare manuscripts mostly, written in Arabic during 10th and 11th century A.H.

A brief survey indicates that about 2.0 million manuscripts are available at Pakistan mostly written in Arabic and Persian languages. Majority of them is related to Islamic ideology, history, art and culture. There are so many important manuscript collections in possession of noble families which have not been explored and documented so far. They fall in the category of Islamic manuscripts.


For assessment of the physical condition of manuscript collections and repositories the country’s collection may be divided in two groups (a) Manuscript collections with state institutions and (2) Manuscript collections under private auspices.

4.1 Manuscript Collections with state institutions

Generally speaking manuscripts are preserved carefully. The Manuscripts of the Holy Quran at National Museum are in the best condition. At all repositories manuscripts are being fumigated and repaired as per requirement. However, new acquisitions are being preserved rather fitfully at some institutions due to shortage of resources.

The laboratories for conservation and preservation have been established at all the above mentioned state institutions. But except the National Archives of Pakistan and the National Documentation Centre no laboratory is substantially equipped with modern tools and adequately trained human resource. Both of these organizations are now facing scarcity of trained persons. Proper arrangement of preservation lab and tools are available at the National Museum also but adequately trained persons are insufficient and equipments/technology is rather outdated.

Apart from the above mentioned main organizations Provincial archives are established at Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta. Preservation labs equipped with necessary tools and other materials have been working there. But the capacity of these labs is much less than required. These are being upgraded but at a slow pace, mainly due to financial crunch & lack of training institute.

The Punjab University, the Institute of Sindhiology and the Bait-ul-Hikmat have also made arrangements for conservation and preservation of manuscripts and have been maintaining the manuscripts methodically. But the condition of their laboratories is not satisfactory. All of these institutions are devoid of modern equipment and training.

The functionaries of National Museum, National Archives of Pakistan and the Provincial Archives were trained about 10 to 15 years back. Some experts were also invited from the British Library to impart training in record management and preservation. The trained persons have performed a good job in establishing and running the labs and maintaining the stacks. Now most of them have been retired. They have trained some others but this second generation does not have excellence like their trainers. Furthermore, they are generally using the technique of the 20th century.

Mostly retired old trainers are available. New management of repositories is very much interested in improving capabilities of their human resource and modernize their institutions but due to some problems their pace of progress is slow. The functionaries of Sindh Archives who have been trained some 15 years back are running a training program in preservation and cataloguing at Sindh Archives Karachi.

4.2 Manuscript Collections under private auspices

There is a huge documented and undocumented collection of manuscripts available with individuals and private institutions. The condition of manuscripts with them is generally pathetic. Some people use indigenous methods, e.g., Keeping leaves of insecticide plants and lamination etc. for preservation. Proper preservation labs are not available in the private sector due to the high cost of equipments/raw material, lack of training and awareness, etc. In some cases provincial archives offer their complimentary services for preservation of most valuable manuscripts but due to limited capacity these services cannot be provided adequately and generally.


There is no institute in Pakistan for training in conservation and preservation of old documents. The students of Library Science Departments at various universities and functionaries of several libraries/repositories are willing to acquire the expertise in latest techniques of conservation and preservation.


Many institutions have published descriptive catalogues and classified hand lists of manuscripts. A list (approximate) of these finding aids is available at annexure ‘B’. Mostly the state institutions and universities have published such lists/ catalogues. As mentioned earlier, personal collections are generally undocumented.


The process of digitization of manuscripts in Pakistan is at initial stage. Few organizations have recently started digitization of manuscripts with their records. In this field Pakistan could not make considerable progress due to some problems i.e. Lack of funds & expertise in this field. During last few years some public and private organizations like Sindh Archives, National Library, International Islamic University, Punjab University ,Pashto Academy and Higher education commission have started the process of digitization.

The Sindh Archives, Karachi, is a pioneer in digitization of manuscripts. The work was started there during 2005 .Senior Professors in Library Science, experts in manuscripts and IT professionals have been developing proven softwares for entire collections. Software titled, ‘Manuscript Search Program’ (MSP), has been recently completed. Data entry through it is in progress. Brief description/catalogue of manuscripts available at this repository may be available online shortly through website Whole work of digitization is being done with the meager resources available in Pakistan. Since it is a new field therefore experts are not locally available. Technical assistance in this regard is very much needed to improve the quality of work and make these softwares useful for all.


Islamic manuscripts have travelled from their origins during last few centuries. Now manuscripts preserved at repositories and libraries are available for researchers but those in custody of owners are partially known to us. In order to improve the capacity of Islamic manuscript centers and preserve/document manuscripts in private capacity some recommendations are as follows:

  1. Survey and preparation of guide for Islamic manuscriptsa. Survey and preparation of guide for Islamic manuscripts
  2. A survey should be conducted for identification of Islamic manuscripts and ‘Guide of Islamic manuscripts’ should be prepared.

  3. Training:
    1. At least one training centre should be developed in member states where manuscripts are sufficiently available. For this purpose trainers should be trained at well established institutions who may impart training to others so that technically sound human resource should be prepared. Two training centers at Karachi and Lahore are required In Pakistan.

    2. The skilled workers of manuscripts centres also need refresher courses at training institutes and modern archives/libraries etc.

    3. The students of Library Science Departments at different universities should be awarded scholarships for trainings in preservation/conservation of manuscripts, record management, and digitization.

  4. Universal catalogue and integrated database

    Islamic manuscripts of all member states should be catalogued on a standard format. Each member state should have self-governing database having mutually agreed set of fields. All databases should be integrated, enabling user to search the manuscripts available in member states through website of ISESCO/OIC.

  5. Improvement of Islamic manuscripts centers

    Generally speaking, equipment and raw material being used for preservation is very costly. Important manuscripts centers should be supported to improve themselves with the latest equipments well trained human resource.


Present study is based on 77 MSS repositories, 28 institutional and 49 personal collections containing 47491 and 9703 manuscripts respectively. Totally 57194 manuscripts have been enlisted. These manuscripts are rare and written in oriental languages. Certainly there are more manuscripts in Pakistan which are still undocumented. A survey of oriental manuscripts is needed on national basis and a resource sharing is needed internationally.

Annexure – A

Libraries /Institutions

S. No.

Name of Libraries/Institution


Total MSS.


Bahawalpur Central Library




Bahawalpur Museum




Central Quran Museum




Dayal Singh Library




Divisional Public Library




Hamdard Foundation Library




Institute of Sindhology




International Islamic University




Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies




Islamia College Library




Lahore Museum




Liaquat Bagh Library




Manuscript Library Pir Gando National Museum




National Archives of Pakistan




National Library of Pakistan




National Museum of Pakistan




National Museum of Pakistan




Peshawar University Library




Punjab Public Library




Punjab University Library




Quaid-e-Azam University Library




Shah Wali ullah Academy




Shams-ul-Ulma Daood Pota Library




Sindh Archives




Sindh Provincial Museum Library




Sindh University Library




Sindhi Adabi Board







Finding Aids
Catalogues and lists of Manuscripts
1. Abdullah, S.M.
Descriptive catalogue of the Persian, Urdu and Arabic Manuscripts in the Punjab University Library. vi /Compiled by S.M. Abdullah. - Lahore: Punjab University Library, 1942.
2. Abdullah, S.M
Descriptive catalogue of the Persian, Urdu and Arabic Manuscripts in the Punjab University Library. vii /Compiled by S.M. Abdullah. - Lahore: Punjab University Library, 1946.
3. Ahmed, Shahzada Irfan. [Jan. 22,2008]
Sanskrit manuscripts in Punjab University Library in Lahore. Voice of silence, Jammu p. 3.
4. International council on archives guide to the sources of Asian history: Pakistan
8.- Vol. 1 Islamabad: National Archives of Pakistan, 1990.
5. Kazmi, Syeda Nikhat Firdous
Fehrist nuskha-hi-khatti kitab khana Masood Jhandir.Hand written document.
6. Meredith-Owens, G.M
Hand list of Persian manuscripts 1895-1966/by G.M. Meredith-Owens.- Britain: The Trustees of the British Museum,1968.
7. National Archives, govt. of Pakistan
Descriptive catalogue of manuscripts / Compiled by National Archives - Islamabad: National Archives, Govt. of Pakistan, 1974

1. Ashraf Ali.
Kutub aur Kutub Khanoon ke Tarikh. Islamabad: Muqtadra qaumi Zaban,2002
2. Digitization of rare books, manuscirpts in propers. NLP. The News International.
3. Hattstein, Markus
Islam: art and architecture/ edited by Markus Hattstein and Peter Delius.- Berlin: Konemann,2004.
4. Islamic paleography in Pakistan- Dr. Ahmed Nabi Khan (MSS)
5. Khan, Ahmad Nabi
The Royal kitabkhanas and ateliers: their working and administration. Punjab Journal of archeology. pp. 125-140
6. Khan, Ahmad Nabi
Islamic architecture in South Asia : Pakistan –India-Bangladesh/Ahmad Nabi Khan.- London: Oxford University Press, 2003
7. Krishna Rao, M.V. N.
Indus script deciphered/M.V.N. Krishna Rao.- Delhi : Agam Kala Prakashan, 1982
8. Kulke, Hermann
A history of India/ Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund.- 4th ed.- London: Routledge, 2004
9. Mohammad Yunus
South Asia : a historical narrative/ Mohammad Yunus.- London: Oxford University Press,2006
10. Muhammad Ahsan
Digital divide and digitization in Pakistan.
11. Muhammad Ahsan
Digital divide and digitization initiatives in Pakistan: a bird’s eye view
12. Nasim Fatima
Guide lines for archives management in Pakistan /Dr. Nasim Fatima.- Karachi : Idara Kitabiat-e-Pakistan,2004
k 13. National library of Pakistan: resources.
14. Soomro, Dr. Mohd. Idrees.
Libraries of Sindh faxes: June 29-July 2, 2009
15. Treasures of Islam: artistic glories of the Muslim world.- London: Duncan Baird Publishers,2007.